The Journal of International
Advanced Otology
Original Article

A Deep Learning Algorithm to Identify Anatomical Landmarks on Computed Tomography of the Temporal Bone

1.

University of Sydney, Faculty of Medicine and Health, New South Wales, Australia

2.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Westmead Hospital, New South Wales, Australia

3.

Monash University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Victoria, Australia

4.

Department of Otolaryngology, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

5.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Australia

6.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Concord Hospital, New South Wales, Australia

J Int Adv Otol 2023; 19: 360-367
DOI: 10.5152/iao.2023.231073
Read: 780 Downloads: 522 Published: 29 September 2023

BACKGROUND: Petrous temporal bone cone-beam computed tomography scans help aid diagnosis and accurate identification of key operative landmarks in temporal bone and mastoid surgery. Our primary objective was to determine the accuracy of using a deep learning convolutional neural network algorithm to augment identification of structures on petrous temporal bone cone-beam computed tomography. Our secondary objective was to compare the accuracy of convolutional neural network structure identification when trained by a senior versus junior clinician.

METHODS: A total of 129 petrous temporal bone cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained from an Australian public tertiary hospital. Key intraoperative landmarks were labeled in 68 scans using bounding boxes on axial and coronal slices at the level of the malleoincudal joint by an otolaryngology registrar and board-certified otolaryngologist. Automated structure identification was performed on axial and coronal slices of the remaining 61 scans using a convolutional neural network (Microsoft Custom Vision) trained using the labeled dataset. Convolutional neural network structure identification accuracy was manually verified by an otolaryngologist, and accuracy when trained by the registrar and otolaryngologist labeled datasets respectively was compared.

RESULTS: The convolutional neural network was able to perform automated structure identification in petrous temporal bone cone-beam computed tomography scans with a high degree of accuracy in both axial (0.958) and coronal (0.924) slices (P < .001). Convolutional neural network accuracy was proportionate to the seniority of the training clinician in structures with features more difficult to distinguish on single slices such as the cochlea, vestibule, and carotid canal.

CONCLUSION: Convolutional neural networks can perform automated structure identification in petrous temporal bone cone-beam computed tomography scans with a high degree of accuracy, with the performance being proportionate to the seniority of the training clinician. Training of the convolutional neural network by the most senior clinician is desirable to maximize the accuracy of the results.

Cite this article as: Hasan Z, Key S, Lee M, et al. A deep learning algorithm to identify anatomical landmarks on computed tomography of the temporal bone. J Int Adv Otol. 2023;19(5):360-367.

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