The Journal of International
Advanced Otology

International Consensus Recommendations on Microtia, Aural Atresia and Functional Ear Reconstruction


Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, ENT institute, Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China


Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom


Department of Otolaryngology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University, San Francisco Bay Area, USA


Department of Otolaryngology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, Republic Of


Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Operations, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany


Department of Otolaryngology, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom


Department of Otolaryngology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, USA


Department of Otolaryngology, Prosper-Hospital, Ruhr University, Recklinghausen, Germany


Department of Otolaryngology, La Timone Children's Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France

J Int Adv Otol 2019; 15: 204-208
DOI: 10.5152/iao.2019.7383
Read: 3226 Downloads: 1213 Published: 03 September 2019



The aim of this report is to provide international recommendations for functional ear reconstruction in patients with microtia and aural atresia. All patients with microtia and external auditory atresia should be seen in the setting of a multidisciplinary team and agreed treatment outcomes should be measured, so that techniques, approaches, and results can be compared. The methods are expert opinion from the members of the International Microtia and Atresia Workgroup (IMAW). The consensus recommendations reported herein take into account the variability in practice patterns present among experts in the field; the degree of consensus was quantified by presenting the percentage of above authors who agree or partially agree with each statement. Recommendations include the definition and classification of microtia/atresia, treatment of microtia, treatment of congenital aural atresia, flowchart of functional ear reconstruction, and future research directions. Patients with microtia and aural atresia can be guided by the consensus recommendations provided herein.


Cite this article as: Zhang TY, Bulstrode N, Chang K, Cho YS, Frenzel H, Jiang D, et al. International Consensus Recommendations on Microtia, Aural Atresia and Functional Ear Reconstruction. J Int Adv Otol 2019; 15(2): 204-8.

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