The Journal of International
Advanced Otology
Original Article

The Correlation of Congenital CMV Infection and the Outcome of Cochlear Implantation

1.

Department of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Laval University, Quebec

2.

Quebec Centre of Expertise in Cochlear Implant, Quebec

J Int Adv Otol 2021; 17: 190-194
DOI: 10.5152/iao.2021.9335
Read: 161 Downloads: 47 Published: 31 May 2021

OBJECTIVES: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common intrauterine viral infection, affecting approximately 0.5-2.5% of all live births in the world. The majority of patients are asymptomatic at birth, but several clinical consequences are related to this infection, including neurosensory hearing loss. The cochlear implant is the treatment of choice when the hearing loss is severe to profound. Compare the audiological evolution after cochlear implant surgery in a group of children born with congenital CMV infection compared to a control group of children born with a genetic cause of congenital hearing loss. Determine prognostic factors predicting the outcome of patients with congenital hearing loss secondary to CMV infection following cochlear implantation.

METHODS: Our retrospective study aimed at the analysis of 48 patients with cochlear implants, 25 patients with congenital CMV, and 23 patients in the control group with cochlear cause of hearing loss, who were matched for gender, age of onset, and type of hearing loss. Primary outcomes are auditory evolution with the Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) and the multimedia audiologic test (MAT). Secondary outcomes are evaluation of prognostic factors for the CMV group, like MRI severity sign, antiviral treatment, and neuropsychological disorder.

RESULTS: For the MAT, the results are 73.9% in the CMV group and 81.6% in the control group (P = .03). For the IT-MAIS, the results are 29.3/40 in the CMV group and 29.2/40 in the control group (P = .96). In the CMV group, the children treated with antiviral treatment have IT-MAIS difference of 28.5/40 compared to 23.2/40 for the children without antiviral treatment (P = .03). We found a little trend in the correlation between auditory results and the presence of  neuropsychological disorders, but there are no statistically significant results.

CONCLUSION: The results of the audiological tests in the CMV group allow an adequate functioning, even if lower than in the control group.
There are benefits of implantation in patients with CMV, and  audiological results are still satisfactory for proper functioning. CMV patients enjoy superior results in terms of hearing, with antiviral treatment.

Cite this article as: H. Bolduc S, Bussières R, Philippon D, Côté M. The correlation of congenital CMV infection and the outcome of cochlear implantation. J Int Adv Otol. 2021;17(3):190-194.

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