The Journal of International
Advanced Otology
Original Article

Use of a Caprine Model for Simulation and Training of Endoscopic Ear surgery


Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada


Khon Kaen Ear, Hearing and Balance Research Group, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Khon Kaen University, Thailand


Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery University of Toronto, Trillium Health Partners, Toronto, Canada

J Int Adv Otol 2023; 19: 93-98
DOI: 10.5152/iao.2023.22749
Read: 755 Downloads: 307 Published: 01 March 2023

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a caprine model in endoscopic ear surgical education using the index procedures of tympanoplasty and ossiculoplasty. Specifically, this study assessed the face and content validity of the caprine model, and the potential impact of anatomical differences on trainee understanding of human middle ear anatomy.

METHODS: Twelve otolaryngology trainees attended a 3-hour endoscopic ear surgery course utilizing the caprine model in which they completed canalplasty, tympanoplasty, and ossiculoplasty. Prior to the course, the trainees completed a self-reported needs assessment and knowledge assessment of human middle ear anatomy. Following the course, the trainees repeated the knowledge assessment and completed evaluation and validation questionnaires. Five-point Likert scores were used for the needs assessment and validation questionnaire.

RESULTS: Of the 12 trainees, 9 participated in the study. All domains of the learner needs assessment showed an average improvement of 1 point on the post-course evaluation with 6 of 9 domains being significantly improved using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P< .05). The model achieved validation in the domains of face, content, and global content validity with an average Likert score > 4. Knowledge assessment scores increased by 7% (P=.23) after the course compared to before.

CONCLUSION: The caprine model offers an effective surgical simulation model for endoscopic ear surgery training with good face and content validity. We find it to be readily available and affordable. We currently use it routinely to give otolaryngology residents the experience of endoscopic ear surgery before operating on patients.

Cite this article as: Kwinter A, Chayaopas N, Ma A, James AL. Use of a caprine model for simulation and training of endoscopic ear surgery. J Int Adv Otol. 2023;19(2):93-98.

EISSN 2148-3817