ISSN 1308-7649 | E-ISSN 2148-3817
Original Article
Endoscopic vs Microscopic Approach in Stapes Surgery: Advantages in the Middle Ear Structures Visualization and Trainee's Point of View
1 Sensory Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy  
2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy  
J Int Adv Otol 2017; 13: 14-20
DOI: 10.5152/iao.2017.3322
Key Words: Surgical education, stapes surgery, otosclerosis, endoscopic stapes surgery, middle ear

OBJECTIVE: Comparing the endoscopic and microscopic approaches in stapes surgery, and establishing the surgical approach that allows better results in terms of visualization of the middle ear structures and aids assistant’s training.


MATERIALS and METHODS: Twenty-one residents from the first to the fifth year of training in Otolaryngology were enrolled in this prospective study. A questionnaire specifically designed to investigate the understanding of middle ear anatomy, the surgical steps, and a personal opinion about endoscopic stapes surgery was submitted to each resident.


RESULTS: Statistical differences between the endoscopic and microscopic approaches were evident about identification of stapes and long process of the incus (p=0.03) and stapes footplate and the oval window (p=0.03). No substantial difference between the two surgical approaches emerged regarding the visualization of the tympanic membrane and the other middle ear structures (p>0.5). A substantial difference in favor of the endoscopic approach emerged regarding the identification of the hole creation in the footplate of the stapes.


CONCLUSION: Endoscopic stapes surgery could favor an easier understanding of the surgical technique for assistants in training with little knowledge of the anatomy and surgical steps.

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